This article was excerpted from the book OAuth 2 in Action.
The OAuth core specification specifies four different grant types: Authorization Code, Implicit, Resource Owner Password Credentials and Client Credentials. Each grant type is designed with different security and deployment aspects in mind and should be used accordingly.
Native applications are those that run directly on the end user’s device, be it a computer or mobile device. The software for the application is generally compiled or packaged externally then installed onto the device. These applications can easily make use of the back channel by making a direct HTTP call outbound to the remote server. Since the user is not in a web browser, as he would be with a web application or a browser client, the front channel is more problematic.
To make a front channel request, the native application needs to be able to reach out to the system web browser or an embedded browser view to get the user to the authorization server directly. To listen for front channel responses, the native application needs to be able to serve a URI that the browser can be redirected to by the authorization server. This usually takes one of the following forms:
- an embedded web server running on localhost
- a remote web server with some type of out-of- band push notification capability to the application
- a custom URI scheme such as com.oauthinaction.mynativeapp:// that is registered with the operating system such that the application is called when URIs with that scheme are accessed
For mobile applications, the custom URI scheme is the most common. Native applications are capable of using the authorization code, client credentials, or assertion flows easily, but since they can keep information out of the web browser, it is not recommended that native applications use the implicit flow.
Historically, one of the weaknesses of OAuth was a poor end-user experience on mobile devices. To help smooth the user experience, it was common for native OAuth clients to leverage a “web-view” component when sending the user to the authorization server’s authorization endpoint (interacting with the front channel).
A web-view is a system component that allows applications to display web content within the UI of an application. The web-view acts as an embedded user-agent, separate from the system browser. Unfortunately, the web-view has a long history of security vulnerabilities and concerns that come with it. Most notably, the client applications can inspect the contents of the web-view component, and would therefore be able to eavesdrop on the end-user credentials when they authenticated to the authorization server.
Since a major focus of OAuth is keeping the user’s credentials out of the hands of the client applications entirely, this is counterproductive. The usability of the web-view component is far from ideal. Since it’s embedded inside the application itself, the web-view doesn’t have access to the system browser’s cookies, memory, or session information. Accordingly, the web-view doesn’t have access to any existing authentication sessions, forcing users to sign in multiple times.
One thing that native OAuth clients can do is to make HTTP requests exclusively through external user-agents. A great advantage of using a system browser is that it lets the resource owner see the URI address bar, which acts as a great anti-phishing defense. It also helps train users to put their credentials only into trusted websites and not into any application that asks for them.
In recent mobile operating systems, a third option has been added that combines the best of both of these approaches. In this mode, a special web-view style component is made available to the application developer. This component can be embedded within the application just like a traditional web-view. However, this new component shares the same security model as the system browser itself, allowing single sign-on style user experiences. Furthermore, it is not inspectable by the host application, leading to greater security separation on par with using an external system browser.
In order to capture this and other security and usability issues that are unique to native applications, the OAuth working group is working on a new document called “OAuth 2.0 for Native Apps” Other recommendations listed in the document include:
- For custom redirect URI schemes, pick a scheme that is globally unique and which you can assert ownership over. One way of doing this is to use reversed DNS notation as we have done in the example application: com.oauthinaction.mynativeapp://. This approach is a good way to avoid clashing with schemes used by other applications that could lead to a potential authorization code interception attack.
- In order to mitigate some of the risk associated with authorization code interception attack, it is a good idea to use Proof Key for Code Exchange (PKCE).
One last important thing to remember is that, for a native application, even if the client_secret is somehow hidden in the compiled code it must not be considered as a secret. Even the most arcane artifact can be decompiled and the client_secret is then not that secret anymore. The same principle applies to mobile clients and desktop native applications. Failing to remember this simple principle might lead to disaster.
One way to hinder the danger of storage of the client_secret for native application is to use one of the OAuth family specifications named Dynamic Registration. This will solve the issue of having the client_secret shipped with the native application artifact. A production instance of such a native application would, of course, store this information so that each installation of the client software will register itself once on startup, but not every time it is launched by the user. No two instances of the client application will have access to each other’s credentials.
These simple considerations can substantially improve the security and usability of native applications that use OAuth.
For source code, sample chapters, the Online Author Forum, and other resources, go to https://www.manning.com/books/oauth-2- in-action